Self-assembly at the nanoscale is becoming increasingly important for the fabrication of novel supramolecular structures, with applications in the fields of nanobiotechnology and nanomedicine. Peptides represent the most favorable building blocks for the design and synthesis of nanostructures because they offer a great diversity of chemical and physical properties, they can be synthesized in large amounts, and can be modified and decorated with functional elements, which can be used in diverse applications. In this article, we review some of the most recent experimental advances in the use of nanoscale self-assembled peptide structures and the theoretical efforts aimed at understanding the microscopic determinants of their formation, stability and conformational properties. The combination of experimental observations and theoretical advances will be fundamental to fully realizing the biotechnological potential of peptide self-organization.
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