PKCγ regulates syndecan-2 inside-out signaling during xenopus left-right development

Kenneth L. Kramer, Janet E. Barnette, H. Joseph Yost

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

96 Scopus citations


The transmembrane proteoglycan syndecan-2 cell nonautonomously regulates left-right (LR) development in migrating mesoderm by an unknown mechanism, leading to LR asymmetric gene expression and LR orientation of the heart and gut. Here, we demonstrate that protein kinase C γ (PKCγ) mediates phosphorylation of the cytoplasmic domain of syndecan-2 in right, but not left, animal cap ectodermal cells. Notably, both phosphorylation states of syndecan-2 are obligatory for normal LR development, with PKCγ-dependent phosphorylated syndecan-2 in right ectodermal cells and nonphosphorylated syndecan-2 in left cells. The ectodermal cells contact migrating mesodermal cells during early gastrulation, concurrent with the transmission of LR information. This precedes the appearance of monocilia and is one of the earliest steps of LR development. These results demonstrate that PKCγ regulates the cytoplasmic phosphorylation of syndecan-2 and, consequently, syndecan-2-mediated inside-out signaling to adjacent cells.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)981-990
Number of pages10
Issue number7
StatePublished - Dec 27 2002
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)


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