Porcelain adherence to dental cast CP titanium: Effects of surface modifications

Z. Cai, N. Bunce, M. E. Nunn, T. Okabe

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

81 Scopus citations


Objectives: A reaction layer forms on cast titanium surfaces due to the reaction of the molten titanium with the investment material. Such a layer prevents strong adhesion between titanium and porcelain. This study characterized the effects of surface modifications on cast titanium surfaces and titanium-ceramic adhesion.Methods: ASTM grade II CP titanium was cast into an MgO-based mold. Castings were devested by sandblasting with alumina particles, and subjected to surface modification by immersion in one of the following solutions: (1) 35% HNO3-5% HF at room temperature for 1min; (2) 50% NaOH-10% CuSO4·5H2O at 105°C for 10min; (3) the NaOH-CuSO4 solution followed by the HNO3-HF solution; (4) 50% NaOH-10% NaSO4 at 105°C for 10min; (5) the NaOH-NaSO4 solution followed by the HNO3-HF solution; and (6) 50% NaOH solution at 105°C for 10min. Surfaces only sandblasted with alumina were used as controls. Specimen surfaces were characterized by XRD and SEM/EDS, and hardness-depth profiles were determined. All specimens were sandblasted with 110μm alumina particles before porcelain firing. An ultra-low-fusing porcelain (Vita Titankeramik) was fused on the titanium surfaces. The titanium-ceramic adhesion was characterized by a biaxial flexure test, and area fraction of adherent porcelain (AFAP) was determined by X-ray spectroscopy.Results: EDS analyses revealed a substantial amount (13-17wt%) of Al on the control, and specimens modified with Methods 2, 4, and 6. XRD revealed residual stress in the titanium surfaces and corundum on the control, and Methods 2, 4, and 6 specimens. A new Ti(Cu, Al)2 phase was identified on the titanium surfaces modified by immersion in 50% NaOH-10% CuSO4·5H2O aqueous solution. Reduced residual stress was observed on Method 1, 3, and 5 specimens. No corundum peaks were detected on these specimens. Compared to the control, significantly lower (P

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)979-986
Number of pages8
Issue number9
StatePublished - May 1 2001
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Bioengineering
  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Biophysics
  • Biomaterials
  • Mechanics of Materials


Dive into the research topics of 'Porcelain adherence to dental cast CP titanium: Effects of surface modifications'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this