Aminoglycoside antibiotics remain widely used for urgent clinical treatment of lifethreatening infections, despite the well-recognized risk of permanent hearing loss, i.e., cochleotoxicity. Recent studies show that aminoglycoside-induced cochleotoxicity is exacerbated by bacteriogenic-induced inflammation. This implies that those with severe bacterial infections (that induce systemic inflammation), and are treated with bactericidal aminoglycosides are at greater risk of drug-induced hearing loss than previously recognized. Incorporating this novel comorbid factor into cochleotoxicity risk prediction models will better predict which individuals are more predisposed to druginduced hearing loss. Here, we review the cellular and/or signaling mechanisms by which host-mediated inflammatory responses to infection could enhance the trafficking of systemically administered aminoglycosides into the cochlea to enhance the degree of cochleotoxicity over that in healthy preclinical models. Once verified, these mechanisms will be potential targets for novel pharmacotherapeutics that reduce the risk of druginduced hearing loss (and acute kidney damage) without compromising the life-saving bactericidal efficacy of aminoglycosides.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience