Aims: Coronary artery disease (CAD) and stroke share a major linkage at the chromosome 12q24 locus. The same chromosome region entails at least a major risk gene for type 2 diabetes (T2D) within NIDDM2, the non-insulin-dependent-diabetes 2 locus. The gene of Proteasome Modulator 9 (PSMD9) lies in the NIDDM2 region and is implicated in diabetes in mice. PSMD9 mutations rarely cause T2D and common variants are linked to both late-onset T2D and maturity-onset-diabetes of the young (MODY3). In this study, we aimed at determining whether PSMD9 is linked to macrovascular pathology of T2D.Methods and Results: In our 200 T2D families from Italy, we characterized the clinical phenotype of macrovascular pathology by defining the subjects for presence or absence of CAD, stroke and/or transitory ischemic attacks (TIA), plaques of the large arterial vessels (macro-vasculopathy) and arterial angioplasty performance. We then screened 200 T2D siblings/families for PSMD9 +nt460A/G, +nt437C/T and exon E197G A/G single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and performed a non-parametric linkage study to test for linkage for coronary artery disease, stroke/TIA, macro-vasculopathy and macrovascular pathology of T2D. We performed 1,000 replicates to test the power of our significant results. Our results show a consistent significant LOD score in linkage with all the above-mentioned phenotypes. Our 1000 simulation analyses, performed for each single test, confirm that the results are not due to random chance.Conclusions: In summary, the PSMD9 IVS3+nt460A/G, +nt437C/T and exon E197G A/G SNPs are linked to CAD, stroke/TIA and macrovascular pathology of T2D in Italians.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Internal Medicine
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine