Pumped helium system for cooling positron and electron traps to 1.2 K

Jonathan P. Wrubel, G. Gabrielse, W. S. Kolthammer, P. Larochelle, R. Mcconnell, P. Richerme, D. Grzonka, W. Oelert, T. Sefzick, M. Zielinski, J. S. Borbely, M. C. George, E. A. Hessels, C. H. Storry, M. Weel, A. Müllers, J. Walz, A. Speck

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

7 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Extremely precise tests of fundamental particle symmetries should be possible via laser spectroscopy of trapped antihydrogen (H) atoms. H atoms that can be trapped must have an energy in temperature units that is below 0.5 K - the energy depth of the deepest magnetic traps that can currently be constructed with high currents and superconducting technology. The number of atoms in a Boltzmann distribution with energies lower than this trap depth depends sharply upon the temperature of the thermal distribution. For example, ten times more atoms with energies low enough to be trapped are in a thermal distribution at a temperature of 1.2 K than for a temperature of 4.2 K. To date, H atoms have only been produced within traps whose electrode temperature is 4.2 K or higher. A lower temperature apparatus is desirable if usable numbers of atoms that can be trapped are to eventually be produced. This report is about the pumped helium apparatus that cooled the trap electrodes of an H apparatus to 1.2 K for the first time. Significant apparatus challenges include the need to cool a 0.8 m stack of 37 trap electrodes separated by only a mm from the substantial mass of a 4.2 K Ioffe trap and the substantial mass of a 4.2 K solenoid. Access to the interior of the cold electrodes must be maintained for antiprotons, positrons, electrons and lasers.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)232-240
Number of pages9
JournalNuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment
Volume640
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 1 2011
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Electron traps
Positrons
Helium
positrons
helium
traps
Cooling
cooling
Atoms
atoms
Electrodes
electrons
electrodes
Temperature
temperature
Laser spectroscopy
Boltzmann distribution
energy
Solenoids
antiprotons

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Instrumentation
  • Nuclear and High Energy Physics

Cite this

Pumped helium system for cooling positron and electron traps to 1.2 K. / Wrubel, Jonathan P.; Gabrielse, G.; Kolthammer, W. S.; Larochelle, P.; Mcconnell, R.; Richerme, P.; Grzonka, D.; Oelert, W.; Sefzick, T.; Zielinski, M.; Borbely, J. S.; George, M. C.; Hessels, E. A.; Storry, C. H.; Weel, M.; Müllers, A.; Walz, J.; Speck, A.

In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, Vol. 640, No. 1, 01.06.2011, p. 232-240.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Wrubel, JP, Gabrielse, G, Kolthammer, WS, Larochelle, P, Mcconnell, R, Richerme, P, Grzonka, D, Oelert, W, Sefzick, T, Zielinski, M, Borbely, JS, George, MC, Hessels, EA, Storry, CH, Weel, M, Müllers, A, Walz, J & Speck, A 2011, 'Pumped helium system for cooling positron and electron traps to 1.2 K', Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, vol. 640, no. 1, pp. 232-240. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nima.2011.01.030
Wrubel, Jonathan P. ; Gabrielse, G. ; Kolthammer, W. S. ; Larochelle, P. ; Mcconnell, R. ; Richerme, P. ; Grzonka, D. ; Oelert, W. ; Sefzick, T. ; Zielinski, M. ; Borbely, J. S. ; George, M. C. ; Hessels, E. A. ; Storry, C. H. ; Weel, M. ; Müllers, A. ; Walz, J. ; Speck, A. / Pumped helium system for cooling positron and electron traps to 1.2 K. In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment. 2011 ; Vol. 640, No. 1. pp. 232-240.
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