Osteoarthritis results in irreparable loss of articular cartilage. Due to its avascular nature and low mitotic activity, cartilage has little intrinsic capacity for repair. Cartilage loss leads to pain, physical disability, movement restriction, and morbidity. Various treatment strategies have been proposed for cartilage regeneration, but the optimum treatment is yet to be defined. Tissue engineering with engineered constructs aimed towards developing a suitable substrate may help in cartilage regeneration by providing the mechanical, biological and chemical support to the cells. The use of scaffold as a substrate to support the progenitor cells or autologous chondrocytes has given promising results. Leakage of cells, poor cell survival, poor cell differentiation, inadequate integration into the host tissue, incorrect distribution of cells, and dedifferentiation of the normal cartilage are the common problems in tissue engineering. Current research is focused on improving mechanical and biochemical properties of scaffold to make it more efficient. The aim of this review is to provide a critical discussion on existing challenges, scaffold type and properties, and an update on ongoing recent developments in the architecture and composition of scaffold to enhance the proliferation and viability of mesenchymal stem cells.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Ceramics and Composites
- Biomedical Engineering
- Metals and Alloys