Revised reference curves for bone mineral content and areal bone mineral density according to age and sex for black and non-black children: Results of the bone mineral density in childhood study

Babette S. Zemel, Heidi J. Kalkwarf, Vicente Gilsanz, Joan M. Lappe, Sharon Oberfield, John A. Shepherd, Margaret M. Frederick, Xiangke Huang, Ming Lu, Soroosh Mahboubi, Thomas Hangartner, Karen K. Winer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

205 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Context: Deficits in bone acquisition during growth may increase fracture risk. Assessment of bone health during childhood requires appropriate reference values relative to age, sex, and population ancestry to identify bone deficits. Objective: The objective of this study was to provide revised and extended reference curves for bone mineral content (BMC) and areal bone mineral density (aBMD) in children. Design: The Bone Mineral Density in Childhood Study was a multicenter longitudinal study with annual assessments for up to 7 yr. Setting: The study was conducted at five clinical centers in the United States. Participants: Two thousand fourteen healthy children (992 males, 22% African-Americans) aged 5-23 yr participated in the study. Intervention: There were no interventions. Main Outcome Measures: Reference percentiles for BMC and aBMD of the total body, lumbar spine, hip, and forearm were obtained using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry for Black and non-Black children. Adjustment factors for height status were also calculated. Results: Extended reference curves forBMCand aBMD of the total body, total body less head, lumbar spine, total hip, femoral neck, and forearm for ages 5-20 yr were constructed relative to sex and age for Black and non-Black children. Curves are similar to those previously published for 7-17 year olds. BMC and aBMD values were greater for Black vs. non-Black children at all measurement sites. Conclusions: We provide here dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry reference data on a well-characterized cohort of 2012 children and adolescents. These reference curves provide the most robust reference values for the assessment and monitoring of bone health in children and adolescents in the literature to date.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3160-3169
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Volume96
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2011

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Bone Density
Minerals
Bone
Bone and Bones
Forearm
Hip
Reference Values
Spine
X-Rays
Femur Neck
Health
African Americans
Multicenter Studies
Longitudinal Studies
X rays
Head
Outcome Assessment (Health Care)
Growth
Population
Monitoring

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biochemistry
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Endocrinology
  • Biochemistry, medical
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism

Cite this

Revised reference curves for bone mineral content and areal bone mineral density according to age and sex for black and non-black children : Results of the bone mineral density in childhood study. / Zemel, Babette S.; Kalkwarf, Heidi J.; Gilsanz, Vicente; Lappe, Joan M.; Oberfield, Sharon; Shepherd, John A.; Frederick, Margaret M.; Huang, Xiangke; Lu, Ming; Mahboubi, Soroosh; Hangartner, Thomas; Winer, Karen K.

In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vol. 96, No. 10, 10.2011, p. 3160-3169.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Zemel, Babette S. ; Kalkwarf, Heidi J. ; Gilsanz, Vicente ; Lappe, Joan M. ; Oberfield, Sharon ; Shepherd, John A. ; Frederick, Margaret M. ; Huang, Xiangke ; Lu, Ming ; Mahboubi, Soroosh ; Hangartner, Thomas ; Winer, Karen K. / Revised reference curves for bone mineral content and areal bone mineral density according to age and sex for black and non-black children : Results of the bone mineral density in childhood study. In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 2011 ; Vol. 96, No. 10. pp. 3160-3169.
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T1 - Revised reference curves for bone mineral content and areal bone mineral density according to age and sex for black and non-black children

T2 - Results of the bone mineral density in childhood study

AU - Zemel, Babette S.

AU - Kalkwarf, Heidi J.

AU - Gilsanz, Vicente

AU - Lappe, Joan M.

AU - Oberfield, Sharon

AU - Shepherd, John A.

AU - Frederick, Margaret M.

AU - Huang, Xiangke

AU - Lu, Ming

AU - Mahboubi, Soroosh

AU - Hangartner, Thomas

AU - Winer, Karen K.

PY - 2011/10

Y1 - 2011/10

N2 - Context: Deficits in bone acquisition during growth may increase fracture risk. Assessment of bone health during childhood requires appropriate reference values relative to age, sex, and population ancestry to identify bone deficits. Objective: The objective of this study was to provide revised and extended reference curves for bone mineral content (BMC) and areal bone mineral density (aBMD) in children. Design: The Bone Mineral Density in Childhood Study was a multicenter longitudinal study with annual assessments for up to 7 yr. Setting: The study was conducted at five clinical centers in the United States. Participants: Two thousand fourteen healthy children (992 males, 22% African-Americans) aged 5-23 yr participated in the study. Intervention: There were no interventions. Main Outcome Measures: Reference percentiles for BMC and aBMD of the total body, lumbar spine, hip, and forearm were obtained using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry for Black and non-Black children. Adjustment factors for height status were also calculated. Results: Extended reference curves forBMCand aBMD of the total body, total body less head, lumbar spine, total hip, femoral neck, and forearm for ages 5-20 yr were constructed relative to sex and age for Black and non-Black children. Curves are similar to those previously published for 7-17 year olds. BMC and aBMD values were greater for Black vs. non-Black children at all measurement sites. Conclusions: We provide here dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry reference data on a well-characterized cohort of 2012 children and adolescents. These reference curves provide the most robust reference values for the assessment and monitoring of bone health in children and adolescents in the literature to date.

AB - Context: Deficits in bone acquisition during growth may increase fracture risk. Assessment of bone health during childhood requires appropriate reference values relative to age, sex, and population ancestry to identify bone deficits. Objective: The objective of this study was to provide revised and extended reference curves for bone mineral content (BMC) and areal bone mineral density (aBMD) in children. Design: The Bone Mineral Density in Childhood Study was a multicenter longitudinal study with annual assessments for up to 7 yr. Setting: The study was conducted at five clinical centers in the United States. Participants: Two thousand fourteen healthy children (992 males, 22% African-Americans) aged 5-23 yr participated in the study. Intervention: There were no interventions. Main Outcome Measures: Reference percentiles for BMC and aBMD of the total body, lumbar spine, hip, and forearm were obtained using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry for Black and non-Black children. Adjustment factors for height status were also calculated. Results: Extended reference curves forBMCand aBMD of the total body, total body less head, lumbar spine, total hip, femoral neck, and forearm for ages 5-20 yr were constructed relative to sex and age for Black and non-Black children. Curves are similar to those previously published for 7-17 year olds. BMC and aBMD values were greater for Black vs. non-Black children at all measurement sites. Conclusions: We provide here dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry reference data on a well-characterized cohort of 2012 children and adolescents. These reference curves provide the most robust reference values for the assessment and monitoring of bone health in children and adolescents in the literature to date.

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