Risk assessment for vitamin D

John N. Hathcock, Andrew Shao, Reinhold Vieth, Robert Heaney

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

639 Scopus citations

Abstract

The objective of this review was to apply the risk assessment methodology used by the Food and Nutrition Board (FNB) to derive a revised safe Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) for vitamin D. New data continue to emerge regarding the health benefits of vitamin D beyond its role in bone. The intakes associated with those benefits suggest a need for levels of supplementation, food fortification, or both that are higher than current levels. A prevailing concern exists, however, regarding the potential for toxicity related to excessive vitaminDintakes. The UL established by the FNB for vitaminD(50 μg, or 2000 IU) is not based on current evidence and is viewed by many as being too restrictive, thus curtailing research, commercial development, and optimization of nutritional policy. Human clinical trial data published subsequent to the establishment of the FNB vitamin D UL published in 1997 support a significantly higher UL. We present a risk assessment based on relevant, well-designed human clinical trials of vitamin D. Collectively, the absence of toxicity in trials conducted in healthy adults that used vitamin D dose ≥250 μg/d (10 000 IU vitamin D3) supports the confident selection of this value as the UL.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)6-18
Number of pages13
JournalAmerican Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Volume85
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2007

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

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    Hathcock, J. N., Shao, A., Vieth, R., & Heaney, R. (2007). Risk assessment for vitamin D. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 85(1), 6-18.