Risk Factors for and Outcomes Associated With Peri-Intubation Hypoxemia: A Multicenter Prospective Cohort Study

Nathan J. Smischney, Ashish K. Khanna, Ernesto Brauer, Lee E. Morrow, Uchenna R. Ofoma, David A. Kaufman, Ayan Sen, Chakradhar Venkata, Peter Morris, Vikas Bansal

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Little is known about hypoxemia surrounding endotracheal intubation in the critically ill. Thus, we sought to identify risk factors associated with peri-intubation hypoxemia and its effects’ on the critically ill. Methods: Data from a multicenter, prospective, cohort study enrolling 1,033 critically ill adults who underwent endotracheal intubation across 16 medical/surgical ICUs in the United States from July 2015-January 2017 were used to identify risk factors associated with peri-intubation hypoxemia and its effects on patient outcomes. We defined hypoxemia as any pulse oximetry ≤ 88% during and up to 30 minutes following endotracheal intubation. Results: In the full analysis (n = 1,033), 123 (11.9%) patients experienced the primary outcome. Five risk factors independently associated with our outcome were identified on multiple logistic regression: cardiac related reason for endotracheal intubation (OR 1.67, [95% CI 1.04, 2.69]); pre-intubation noninvasive ventilation (OR 1.66, [95% CI 1.09, 2.54]); emergency intubation (OR 1.65, [95% CI 1.06, 2.55]); moderate-severe difficult bag-mask ventilation (OR 2.68, [95% CI 1.72, 4.19]); and crystalloid administration within the preceding 24 hours (OR 1.24, [95% CI 1.07, 1.45]; per liter up to 4 liters). Higher baseline SpO2 was found to be protective (OR 0.93, [95% CI 0.91, 0.96]; per percent up to 97%). Consistent results were seen in a separate analysis on only stable patients (n = 921, 93 [10.1%]) (those without baseline hypoxemia ≤ 88%). Peri-intubation hypoxemia was associated with in-hospital mortality (OR 2.40, [95% CI 1.33, 4.31]; stable patients: OR 2.67, [95% CI 1.38, 5.17]) but not ICU length of stay (point estimate 0.9 days, [95% CI −1.0, 2.8 days]; stable patients: point estimate 1.5 days, [95% CI −0.4, 3.4 days]) after adjusting for age, body mass index, illness severity, airway related reason for intubation (i.e., acute respiratory failure), and baseline SPO2. Conclusions: Patients with pre-existing noninvasive ventilation and volume loading who were intubated emergently in the setting of hemodynamic compromise with bag-mask ventilation described as moderate-severe were at increased risk for peri-intubation hypoxemia. Higher baseline oxygenation was found to be protective against peri-intubation hypoxemia. Peri-intubation hypoxemia was associated with in-hospital mortality but not ICU length of stay. Trial registration: Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT02508948 and Registered Report Identifier: RR2-10.2196/11101.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of Intensive Care Medicine
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2020

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine

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