Safety and mechanism of appetite suppression by a novel hydroxycitric acid extract (HCA-SX)

Sunny E. Ohia, Catherine A. Opere, Angela M. LeDay, Manashi Bagchi, Debasis Bagchi, Sidney J. Stohs

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Abstract

A growing body of evidence demonstrates the efficacy of Garcinia cambogia-derived natural(-)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA) in weight management by curbing appetite and inhibiting body fat biosynthesis. However, the exact mechanism of action of this novel phytopharmaceutical has yet to be fully understood. In a previous study, we showed that in the rat brain cortex a novel HCA extract (HCA-SX, Super CitriMax TM) increases the release/availability of radiolabeled 5-hydroxytryptamine or serotonin ([ 3H]-5-HT), a neurotransmitter implicated in the regulation of eating behavior and appetite control. The aim of the present study was 2-fold: (a) to determine the effect of HCA-SX on 5-HT uptake in rat brain cortex in vitro; and (b) to evaluate the safety of HCA-SX in vivo. Isolated rat brain cortex slices were incubated in oxygenated Krebs solution for 20 min and transferred to buffer solutions containing [ 3H]-5-HT for different time intervals. In some experiments, tissues were exposed to HCA-SX (10 μM - 1 mM) and the serotonin receptor reuptake inhibitors (SRRI) fluoxetine (100 μM) plus clomipramine (10 μM). Uptake of [ 3H]-5-HT was expressed as d.p.m./mg wet weight. A time-dependent uptake of [ 3H]-5-HT occurred in cortical slices reaching a maximum at 60 min. HCA-SX, and fluoxetine plus clomipramine inhibited the time-dependent uptake of [ 3H]-5-HT. At 90 min, HCA-SX (300 μM) caused a 20% decrease, whereas fluoxetine plus clomipramine inhibited [ 3H]-5-HT uptake by 30%. In safety studies, acute oral toxicity, acute dermal toxicity, primary dermal irritation and primary eye irritation, were conducted in animals using various doses of HCA-SX. Results indicate that the LD 50 of HCA-SX is greater than 5,000 mg/kg when administered once orally via gastric intubation to fasted male and female Albino rats. No gross toxicological findings were observed under the experimental conditions. Taken together, these in vivo toxicological studies demonstrate that HCA-SX is a safe, natural supplement under the conditions it was tested. Furthermore, HCA-SX can inhibit [ 3H]-5-HT uptake (and also increase 5-HT availability) in isolated rat brain cortical slices in a manner similar to that of SRRIs, and thus may prove beneficial in controlling appetite, as well as treatment of depression, insomnia, migraine headaches and other serotonin-deficient conditions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)89-103
Number of pages15
JournalMolecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Volume238
Issue number1-2
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 2002

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Appetite
Serotonin
Safety
Rats
Clomipramine
Fluoxetine
Brain
Garcinia
Toxicology
Garcinia cambogia
Toxicity
hydroxycitric acid
Availability
Weights and Measures
Skin
Behavior Control
Serotonin Receptors
Biosynthesis
Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors
Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics
  • Cell Biology

Cite this

Safety and mechanism of appetite suppression by a novel hydroxycitric acid extract (HCA-SX). / Ohia, Sunny E.; Opere, Catherine A.; LeDay, Angela M.; Bagchi, Manashi; Bagchi, Debasis; Stohs, Sidney J.

In: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, Vol. 238, No. 1-2, 09.2002, p. 89-103.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Ohia, Sunny E. ; Opere, Catherine A. ; LeDay, Angela M. ; Bagchi, Manashi ; Bagchi, Debasis ; Stohs, Sidney J. / Safety and mechanism of appetite suppression by a novel hydroxycitric acid extract (HCA-SX). In: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry. 2002 ; Vol. 238, No. 1-2. pp. 89-103.
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