Should calcium and vitamin D be added to the current enrichment program for cereal-grain products?

Harold L. Newmark, Robert P. Heaney, Paul A. Lachance

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

47 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Mean dietary intakes of calcium and vitamin D in the US adult population are far below the adequate intake (AI) values recommended by the Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences, and thus substantial segments of the American population have inadequate intakes and elevated risks of osteoporosis and colon cancer. The current Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21, sets standards for the optional addition of moderate amounts of calcium and vitamin D in the enrichment of cereal-grain products, a provision that is essentially not used. We propose that the addition of calcium and vitamin D to currently enriched cereal-grain products be mandated in the United States: this would result in an increase in mean daily dietary intakes in the United States of ≈400 mg Ca and ≥50 IU (or possibly >200 IU) vitamin D. The benefits would be a significant reduction in the incidences of osteoporosis and colon cancer over time and overall improvement in health, with little risk and a modest financial cost because of the ability to capitalize on existing technology. We suggest a full scientific review of cereal-grain enrichment with calcium and vitamin D.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)264-270
Number of pages7
JournalAmerican Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Volume80
Issue number2
StatePublished - Aug 2004

Fingerprint

grain products
vitamin D
Vitamin D
small cereal grains
Calcium
calcium
osteoporosis
colorectal neoplasms
Colonic Neoplasms
Osteoporosis
food intake
Adequate Intakes
Dietary Calcium
National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine (U.S.) Health and Medicine Division
Population
medicine
Edible Grain
nutrition
Technology
Costs and Cost Analysis

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Food Science

Cite this

Should calcium and vitamin D be added to the current enrichment program for cereal-grain products? / Newmark, Harold L.; Heaney, Robert P.; Lachance, Paul A.

In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 80, No. 2, 08.2004, p. 264-270.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Newmark, Harold L. ; Heaney, Robert P. ; Lachance, Paul A. / Should calcium and vitamin D be added to the current enrichment program for cereal-grain products?. In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2004 ; Vol. 80, No. 2. pp. 264-270.
@article{e1d661ab6fe04ed5913201e8108d72f2,
title = "Should calcium and vitamin D be added to the current enrichment program for cereal-grain products?",
abstract = "Mean dietary intakes of calcium and vitamin D in the US adult population are far below the adequate intake (AI) values recommended by the Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences, and thus substantial segments of the American population have inadequate intakes and elevated risks of osteoporosis and colon cancer. The current Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21, sets standards for the optional addition of moderate amounts of calcium and vitamin D in the enrichment of cereal-grain products, a provision that is essentially not used. We propose that the addition of calcium and vitamin D to currently enriched cereal-grain products be mandated in the United States: this would result in an increase in mean daily dietary intakes in the United States of ≈400 mg Ca and ≥50 IU (or possibly >200 IU) vitamin D. The benefits would be a significant reduction in the incidences of osteoporosis and colon cancer over time and overall improvement in health, with little risk and a modest financial cost because of the ability to capitalize on existing technology. We suggest a full scientific review of cereal-grain enrichment with calcium and vitamin D.",
author = "Newmark, {Harold L.} and Heaney, {Robert P.} and Lachance, {Paul A.}",
year = "2004",
month = "8",
language = "English",
volume = "80",
pages = "264--270",
journal = "American Journal of Clinical Nutrition",
issn = "0002-9165",
publisher = "American Society for Nutrition",
number = "2",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Should calcium and vitamin D be added to the current enrichment program for cereal-grain products?

AU - Newmark, Harold L.

AU - Heaney, Robert P.

AU - Lachance, Paul A.

PY - 2004/8

Y1 - 2004/8

N2 - Mean dietary intakes of calcium and vitamin D in the US adult population are far below the adequate intake (AI) values recommended by the Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences, and thus substantial segments of the American population have inadequate intakes and elevated risks of osteoporosis and colon cancer. The current Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21, sets standards for the optional addition of moderate amounts of calcium and vitamin D in the enrichment of cereal-grain products, a provision that is essentially not used. We propose that the addition of calcium and vitamin D to currently enriched cereal-grain products be mandated in the United States: this would result in an increase in mean daily dietary intakes in the United States of ≈400 mg Ca and ≥50 IU (or possibly >200 IU) vitamin D. The benefits would be a significant reduction in the incidences of osteoporosis and colon cancer over time and overall improvement in health, with little risk and a modest financial cost because of the ability to capitalize on existing technology. We suggest a full scientific review of cereal-grain enrichment with calcium and vitamin D.

AB - Mean dietary intakes of calcium and vitamin D in the US adult population are far below the adequate intake (AI) values recommended by the Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences, and thus substantial segments of the American population have inadequate intakes and elevated risks of osteoporosis and colon cancer. The current Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21, sets standards for the optional addition of moderate amounts of calcium and vitamin D in the enrichment of cereal-grain products, a provision that is essentially not used. We propose that the addition of calcium and vitamin D to currently enriched cereal-grain products be mandated in the United States: this would result in an increase in mean daily dietary intakes in the United States of ≈400 mg Ca and ≥50 IU (or possibly >200 IU) vitamin D. The benefits would be a significant reduction in the incidences of osteoporosis and colon cancer over time and overall improvement in health, with little risk and a modest financial cost because of the ability to capitalize on existing technology. We suggest a full scientific review of cereal-grain enrichment with calcium and vitamin D.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=4344632288&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=4344632288&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Review article

VL - 80

SP - 264

EP - 270

JO - American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

JF - American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

SN - 0002-9165

IS - 2

ER -