Cisplatin is a widely used chemotherapeutic agent that causes significant hearing loss. Previous studies have shown that cisplatin exposure is associated with increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cochlea. The inner ear expresses a unique isoform of NADPH oxidase, NOX3. This enzyme may be the primary source of ROS generation in the cochlea. The knockdown of NOX3 by pretreatment with siRNA prevented cisplatin ototoxicity, as demonstrated by preservation of hearing thresholds and inner ear sensory cells. Trans-tympanic NOX3 siRNA reduced the expression of NOX3 and biomarkers of cochlear damage, including transient receptor vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel and kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) in cochlear tissues. In addition, siRNA against NOX3 reduced apoptosis as demonstrated by TUNEL staining, and prevented the increased expression of Bax and abrogated the decrease in Bcl2 expression following cisplatin administration. Trans-tympanic administration of siRNA directed against NOX3 may provide a useful method of attenuating cisplatin ototoxicity. In this paper, we review recent publications dealing with the role of NOX3 in ototoxicity and the effects of siRNA against cisplatin-induced hearing loss.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Medicine
- Molecular Biology
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
- Cell Biology