Solid-state properties of creatine monohydrate

Alekha K. Dash, Yoonsun Mo, Abira Pyne

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

17 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Creatine monohydrate (CM) is a nutritional supplement and an ergogenic aid for athletes. It appears to increase lean body mass, high-intensity power output and strength in healthy humans. The crystal structure of creatine monohydrate has previously been reported. However, little information is available on its solid-state properties. In this investigation, creatine monohydrate was subjected to Thermal Analyses, Karl-Fisccher Titrimetry (KFT), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Variable Temperature X-ray Powder Diffractometry (VTXRD) to characterize its solidstate properties. The results of this study suggested that commercially available creatine monohydrate dehydrates at about 97-125°C. A phase transition after dehydration was confirmed by X-ray diffraction studies. This dehydrated phase at a temperature above 230°C undergoes intramolecular cyclization with a loss of an additional mole of water to form creatinine. Creatinine finally melts with decomposition at about 290°C. VTXRD, confirmed that the above solid-state thermal transformation was kinetically driven, and occurred within a narrow temperature range. Mass Spectrometric (MS) studies further indicated a possible dimerization of creatinine formed during the solid-state transformation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)708-718
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Volume91
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - 2002

Fingerprint

Creatine
Creatinine
Temperature
Powders
Titrimetry
Hot Temperature
X-Rays
X rays
Dimerization
Cyclization
Phase Transition
Dehydration
X-Ray Diffraction
Athletes
Electron Scanning Microscopy
Crystal structure
Phase transitions
Decomposition
X ray diffraction
Scanning electron microscopy

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Chemistry(all)
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Drug Discovery
  • Pharmaceutical Science
  • Pharmacology

Cite this

Solid-state properties of creatine monohydrate. / Dash, Alekha K.; Mo, Yoonsun; Pyne, Abira.

In: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol. 91, No. 3, 2002, p. 708-718.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Dash, Alekha K. ; Mo, Yoonsun ; Pyne, Abira. / Solid-state properties of creatine monohydrate. In: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2002 ; Vol. 91, No. 3. pp. 708-718.
@article{228c190eb1204c2ba9665610167f263e,
title = "Solid-state properties of creatine monohydrate",
abstract = "Creatine monohydrate (CM) is a nutritional supplement and an ergogenic aid for athletes. It appears to increase lean body mass, high-intensity power output and strength in healthy humans. The crystal structure of creatine monohydrate has previously been reported. However, little information is available on its solid-state properties. In this investigation, creatine monohydrate was subjected to Thermal Analyses, Karl-Fisccher Titrimetry (KFT), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Variable Temperature X-ray Powder Diffractometry (VTXRD) to characterize its solidstate properties. The results of this study suggested that commercially available creatine monohydrate dehydrates at about 97-125°C. A phase transition after dehydration was confirmed by X-ray diffraction studies. This dehydrated phase at a temperature above 230°C undergoes intramolecular cyclization with a loss of an additional mole of water to form creatinine. Creatinine finally melts with decomposition at about 290°C. VTXRD, confirmed that the above solid-state thermal transformation was kinetically driven, and occurred within a narrow temperature range. Mass Spectrometric (MS) studies further indicated a possible dimerization of creatinine formed during the solid-state transformation.",
author = "Dash, {Alekha K.} and Yoonsun Mo and Abira Pyne",
year = "2002",
doi = "10.1002/jps.10073",
language = "English",
volume = "91",
pages = "708--718",
journal = "Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences",
issn = "0022-3549",
publisher = "John Wiley and Sons Inc.",
number = "3",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Solid-state properties of creatine monohydrate

AU - Dash, Alekha K.

AU - Mo, Yoonsun

AU - Pyne, Abira

PY - 2002

Y1 - 2002

N2 - Creatine monohydrate (CM) is a nutritional supplement and an ergogenic aid for athletes. It appears to increase lean body mass, high-intensity power output and strength in healthy humans. The crystal structure of creatine monohydrate has previously been reported. However, little information is available on its solid-state properties. In this investigation, creatine monohydrate was subjected to Thermal Analyses, Karl-Fisccher Titrimetry (KFT), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Variable Temperature X-ray Powder Diffractometry (VTXRD) to characterize its solidstate properties. The results of this study suggested that commercially available creatine monohydrate dehydrates at about 97-125°C. A phase transition after dehydration was confirmed by X-ray diffraction studies. This dehydrated phase at a temperature above 230°C undergoes intramolecular cyclization with a loss of an additional mole of water to form creatinine. Creatinine finally melts with decomposition at about 290°C. VTXRD, confirmed that the above solid-state thermal transformation was kinetically driven, and occurred within a narrow temperature range. Mass Spectrometric (MS) studies further indicated a possible dimerization of creatinine formed during the solid-state transformation.

AB - Creatine monohydrate (CM) is a nutritional supplement and an ergogenic aid for athletes. It appears to increase lean body mass, high-intensity power output and strength in healthy humans. The crystal structure of creatine monohydrate has previously been reported. However, little information is available on its solid-state properties. In this investigation, creatine monohydrate was subjected to Thermal Analyses, Karl-Fisccher Titrimetry (KFT), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Variable Temperature X-ray Powder Diffractometry (VTXRD) to characterize its solidstate properties. The results of this study suggested that commercially available creatine monohydrate dehydrates at about 97-125°C. A phase transition after dehydration was confirmed by X-ray diffraction studies. This dehydrated phase at a temperature above 230°C undergoes intramolecular cyclization with a loss of an additional mole of water to form creatinine. Creatinine finally melts with decomposition at about 290°C. VTXRD, confirmed that the above solid-state thermal transformation was kinetically driven, and occurred within a narrow temperature range. Mass Spectrometric (MS) studies further indicated a possible dimerization of creatinine formed during the solid-state transformation.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0036281109&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0036281109&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1002/jps.10073

DO - 10.1002/jps.10073

M3 - Article

C2 - 11920756

AN - SCOPUS:0036281109

VL - 91

SP - 708

EP - 718

JO - Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences

JF - Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences

SN - 0022-3549

IS - 3

ER -