Solid-state properties of creatine monohydrate

Alekha K. Dash, Yoonsun Mo, Abira Pyne

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Scopus citations


Creatine monohydrate (CM) is a nutritional supplement and an ergogenic aid for athletes. It appears to increase lean body mass, high-intensity power output and strength in healthy humans. The crystal structure of creatine monohydrate has previously been reported. However, little information is available on its solid-state properties. In this investigation, creatine monohydrate was subjected to Thermal Analyses, Karl-Fisccher Titrimetry (KFT), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Variable Temperature X-ray Powder Diffractometry (VTXRD) to characterize its solidstate properties. The results of this study suggested that commercially available creatine monohydrate dehydrates at about 97-125°C. A phase transition after dehydration was confirmed by X-ray diffraction studies. This dehydrated phase at a temperature above 230°C undergoes intramolecular cyclization with a loss of an additional mole of water to form creatinine. Creatinine finally melts with decomposition at about 290°C. VTXRD, confirmed that the above solid-state thermal transformation was kinetically driven, and occurred within a narrow temperature range. Mass Spectrometric (MS) studies further indicated a possible dimerization of creatinine formed during the solid-state transformation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)708-718
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2002

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pharmaceutical Science


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