Stroke, major bleeding, and mortality outcomes in warfarin users with atrial fibrillation and chronic kidney disease: A meta-analysis of observational studies

Khagendra Dahal, Sumit Kunwar, Jharendra Rijal, Peter Schulman, Juyong Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

132 Scopus citations

Abstract

BACKGROUND: The use of warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) can be problematic because of increased bleeding risk. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies that evaluated the use of warfarin in patients with AF and CKD to evaluate the risks of ischemic stroke/thromboembolism, major bleeding, and mortality. METHODS: PUBMED, EMBASE, CINAHL, ProQuest, and Google Scholar databases were electronically searched through January 12, 2015. Additionally, a manual search was performed for relevant references. Random-effects model was used to estimate the pooled hazard ratio (HR) with 95% CI. CKD was divided into non-end-stage CKD and end-stage CKD (on renal replacement therapy) and separate analyses were performed. RESULTS: Thirteen publications from 11 cohorts (six retrospective and five prospective) including >48,500 total patients with >11,600 warfarin users were included in the metaanalysis. In patients with AF and non-end-stage CKD, warfarin resulted in a lower risk of ischemic stroke/thromboembolism (HR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.54-0.89; P = .004) and mortality (HR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.59-0.72; P < .00001), but had no effect on major bleeding (HR, 1.15; 95% CI, 0.88-1.49; P = .31). In patients with AF and end-stage CKD, warfarin had no effect on the risks of stroke (HR, 1.12; 95% CI, 0.69-1.82; P = .65) and mortality (HR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.81-1.13; P = .60), but increased the risks of major bleeding (HR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.08-1.56; P = .005). CONCLUSIONS: Based on this meta-analysis, the use of warfarin for AF may have an unfavorable risk/benefit ratio in patients with end-stage CKD but not in those with non-end-stage CKD.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)951-959
Number of pages9
JournalChest
Volume149
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 2016
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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