Primary esophageal motility disorders include achalasia, diffuse and segmental esophageal spasm, nutcracker esophagus and hypertensive lower esophageal sphincter. Failed medical therapy frequently precedes the presentation of these patients for surgical intervention. Both laparoscopic and thoracoscopic techniques have been developed to successfully treat these spastic disorders of the esophagus. Laparoscopic and thoracoscopic operative techniques are described.
|Number of pages||6|
|State||Published - Apr 1997|
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