Background: Studies of various prostate cancer patient cohorts found men receiving external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT) had higher mortality than men undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP). Conversely, a recent clinical trial showed no survival differences between treatment groups. We used the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB) to evaluate overall survival in intermediate-risk (T2b-T2c or Gleason 7 [grade group II or III] or prostate-specific antigen 10-20 ng/mL) prostate cancer patients undergoing EBRT with or without androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), RP, or no initial treatment. Patients and Methods: We analyzed 268,378 men with intermediate-risk prostate cancer from 2004 to 2012. Kaplan-Meier estimates and multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to compare survival between treatments. Results: After adjusting for patient and facility covariables, men receiving no initial treatment averaged greater adjusted mortality risk than men receiving EBRT (hazard ratio [HR], 1.71; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.62-1.80; P < .001), EBRT + ADT (HR, 1.73; 95% CI 1.64-1.81; P < .001), or RP (HR, 4.18; 95% CI 3.94-4.43; P < .001). Men undergoing RP had significantly lower adjusted mortality risk than men receiving either EBRT (HR, 0.41; 95% CI 0.39-0.43; P < .001) or EBRT + ADT (HR, 0.41; 95% CI 0.39-0.43; P < .001). No difference was observed between men receiving EBRT or EBRT + ADT (HR, 1.01; 95% CI 0.97-1.05; P = .624). Conclusion: Men treated with RP experienced significantly lower overall mortality risk than EBRT with or without ADT and no treatment patients, regardless of patient, demographic, or facility characteristics. The results are limited by the lack of cancer-specific mortality in this database.
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