Sustained Akt/PKB activation and transient attenuation of c-jun N-Terminal kinase in the inhibition of apoptosis by IGF-1 in vascular smooth muscle cells

R. T. Allen, K. D. Krueger, A. Dhume, Devendra K. Agrawal

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Abstract

Characteristics of hVSMC apoptosis and its inhibition by insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) remain unclear. Also unclear is whether a balance in hVSMCs exists whereby c-Jun N-terminal stress kinases (JNK) promote apoptosis while extracellular signal-regulated (ERK1/2) MAP kinases inhibit cell death. In this study, we examined the involvement of Akt/PKB and its upstream kinase, PDK1 and whether JNK activation correlated with human and rat VSMC apoptosis induced by staurosporine and by c-myc, respectively. We observed a strong, sustained JNK activation (and c-Jun phosphorylation), which correlated with VSMC apoptosis. IGF-1 (13.3 nM), during apoptosis inhibition, transiently inhibited JNK activity at 1 h in a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K)- and MEK-ERK-dependent manner, as wortmannin (100 nM) or PD98059 (30 μM) partially attenuated the IGF-1 effect. PKC down-regulation had no effect on JNK inhibition by IGF-1. While IGF-1 alone produced a strong phosphorylation of Akt/PKB in hVSMCs up to 6 h, it was notably stronger and more sustained during ratmyc and hVSMCs apoptosis inhibition. Further, whereas transient expression of phosphorylated Akt protected VSMCs from apoptosis by nearly 50%, expression of dominant interfering alleles of Akt or PDK1 strongly inhibited IGF-1-mediated VSMC survival. These results demonstrate for the first time that transient inhibition of a pro-apoptotic stimulus in VSMCs may be sufficient to inhibit a programmed cell death and that sustained anti-apoptotic signals (Akt) elicited by IGF-1 are augmented during a death stimulus. Furthermore, PI3-K and ERK-MAPK pathways may cooperate to protect VSMCs from cell death.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)525-535
Number of pages11
JournalApoptosis : an international journal on programmed cell death
Volume10
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - May 2005

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JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
Somatomedins
Vascular Smooth Muscle
Smooth Muscle Myocytes
Muscle
Chemical activation
Cells
Apoptosis
Cell death
Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase
Phosphorylation
Cell Death
MAP Kinase Kinase 4
Staurosporine
MAP Kinase Signaling System
Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1
Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases
Rats
Phosphotransferases
Down-Regulation

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Cell Biology

Cite this

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title = "Sustained Akt/PKB activation and transient attenuation of c-jun N-Terminal kinase in the inhibition of apoptosis by IGF-1 in vascular smooth muscle cells",
abstract = "Characteristics of hVSMC apoptosis and its inhibition by insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) remain unclear. Also unclear is whether a balance in hVSMCs exists whereby c-Jun N-terminal stress kinases (JNK) promote apoptosis while extracellular signal-regulated (ERK1/2) MAP kinases inhibit cell death. In this study, we examined the involvement of Akt/PKB and its upstream kinase, PDK1 and whether JNK activation correlated with human and rat VSMC apoptosis induced by staurosporine and by c-myc, respectively. We observed a strong, sustained JNK activation (and c-Jun phosphorylation), which correlated with VSMC apoptosis. IGF-1 (13.3 nM), during apoptosis inhibition, transiently inhibited JNK activity at 1 h in a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K)- and MEK-ERK-dependent manner, as wortmannin (100 nM) or PD98059 (30 μM) partially attenuated the IGF-1 effect. PKC down-regulation had no effect on JNK inhibition by IGF-1. While IGF-1 alone produced a strong phosphorylation of Akt/PKB in hVSMCs up to 6 h, it was notably stronger and more sustained during ratmyc and hVSMCs apoptosis inhibition. Further, whereas transient expression of phosphorylated Akt protected VSMCs from apoptosis by nearly 50{\%}, expression of dominant interfering alleles of Akt or PDK1 strongly inhibited IGF-1-mediated VSMC survival. These results demonstrate for the first time that transient inhibition of a pro-apoptotic stimulus in VSMCs may be sufficient to inhibit a programmed cell death and that sustained anti-apoptotic signals (Akt) elicited by IGF-1 are augmented during a death stimulus. Furthermore, PI3-K and ERK-MAPK pathways may cooperate to protect VSMCs from cell death.",
author = "Allen, {R. T.} and Krueger, {K. D.} and A. Dhume and Agrawal, {Devendra K.}",
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T1 - Sustained Akt/PKB activation and transient attenuation of c-jun N-Terminal kinase in the inhibition of apoptosis by IGF-1 in vascular smooth muscle cells

AU - Allen, R. T.

AU - Krueger, K. D.

AU - Dhume, A.

AU - Agrawal, Devendra K.

PY - 2005/5

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N2 - Characteristics of hVSMC apoptosis and its inhibition by insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) remain unclear. Also unclear is whether a balance in hVSMCs exists whereby c-Jun N-terminal stress kinases (JNK) promote apoptosis while extracellular signal-regulated (ERK1/2) MAP kinases inhibit cell death. In this study, we examined the involvement of Akt/PKB and its upstream kinase, PDK1 and whether JNK activation correlated with human and rat VSMC apoptosis induced by staurosporine and by c-myc, respectively. We observed a strong, sustained JNK activation (and c-Jun phosphorylation), which correlated with VSMC apoptosis. IGF-1 (13.3 nM), during apoptosis inhibition, transiently inhibited JNK activity at 1 h in a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K)- and MEK-ERK-dependent manner, as wortmannin (100 nM) or PD98059 (30 μM) partially attenuated the IGF-1 effect. PKC down-regulation had no effect on JNK inhibition by IGF-1. While IGF-1 alone produced a strong phosphorylation of Akt/PKB in hVSMCs up to 6 h, it was notably stronger and more sustained during ratmyc and hVSMCs apoptosis inhibition. Further, whereas transient expression of phosphorylated Akt protected VSMCs from apoptosis by nearly 50%, expression of dominant interfering alleles of Akt or PDK1 strongly inhibited IGF-1-mediated VSMC survival. These results demonstrate for the first time that transient inhibition of a pro-apoptotic stimulus in VSMCs may be sufficient to inhibit a programmed cell death and that sustained anti-apoptotic signals (Akt) elicited by IGF-1 are augmented during a death stimulus. Furthermore, PI3-K and ERK-MAPK pathways may cooperate to protect VSMCs from cell death.

AB - Characteristics of hVSMC apoptosis and its inhibition by insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) remain unclear. Also unclear is whether a balance in hVSMCs exists whereby c-Jun N-terminal stress kinases (JNK) promote apoptosis while extracellular signal-regulated (ERK1/2) MAP kinases inhibit cell death. In this study, we examined the involvement of Akt/PKB and its upstream kinase, PDK1 and whether JNK activation correlated with human and rat VSMC apoptosis induced by staurosporine and by c-myc, respectively. We observed a strong, sustained JNK activation (and c-Jun phosphorylation), which correlated with VSMC apoptosis. IGF-1 (13.3 nM), during apoptosis inhibition, transiently inhibited JNK activity at 1 h in a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K)- and MEK-ERK-dependent manner, as wortmannin (100 nM) or PD98059 (30 μM) partially attenuated the IGF-1 effect. PKC down-regulation had no effect on JNK inhibition by IGF-1. While IGF-1 alone produced a strong phosphorylation of Akt/PKB in hVSMCs up to 6 h, it was notably stronger and more sustained during ratmyc and hVSMCs apoptosis inhibition. Further, whereas transient expression of phosphorylated Akt protected VSMCs from apoptosis by nearly 50%, expression of dominant interfering alleles of Akt or PDK1 strongly inhibited IGF-1-mediated VSMC survival. These results demonstrate for the first time that transient inhibition of a pro-apoptotic stimulus in VSMCs may be sufficient to inhibit a programmed cell death and that sustained anti-apoptotic signals (Akt) elicited by IGF-1 are augmented during a death stimulus. Furthermore, PI3-K and ERK-MAPK pathways may cooperate to protect VSMCs from cell death.

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