Synthesis of a secondary N-desmethyl and a tertiary N-cyclopropylmethyl bridged hexahydroaporphine as precursors to bicyclic opioid ligands

N. D. Tran, K. M. Brosnahan, Victoria F. Roche

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Abstract

In an attempt to generate a bicyclic 5,8-ethano derivative of N-methylmorphinan, an isomeric bicyclic hexahydroaporphine 2 was synthesized. The phenolic analogue of 2 has demonstrated affinity for mu opioid receptors in vitro and, along with 2, provided weak, primarily nonopioid analgesic action when injected intracerebroventricularly in mice. It was of interest to assess the potential opioid antagonist action of bicyclic hexahydroaporphine analogues containing cyclopropylmethyl and allyl nitrogen substituents. As the first steps in the generation of these potential opioid antagonists, the secondary bicyclic hexahydroaporphine 3 and its N-cyclopropylmethyl congener 4 were synthesized. N-Demethylation of 2 was initially attempted via the von Braun reaction, but acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of the crude N-cyano intermediate resulted in product decomposition. A successful approach to 3 involved the hydrolysis of the N-formyl precursor 1 in ethanolic potassium hydroxide. Direct alkylation of the secondary amine 3 utilizing cyclopropylmethyl bromide and sodium bicarbonate successfully generated the alkylated derivative 4. Both products were purified in hydrochloride salt form and characterized by standard analytical and spectroscopic methods. The free base form of 3 was highly sensitive to photooxidation. Opioids are known to oxidize to 10-keto structures, and secondary amines can oxidize to hydroxylamines. Infrared analysis of the decomposition product indicated the presence of both hydroxy and carbonyl groups which were absent in the spectrum of the salt. Structures of potential oxidation products are proposed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1034-1037
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Volume79
Issue number11
StatePublished - 1990

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Narcotic Antagonists
Opioid Analgesics
Amines
Hydrolysis
Hydroxylamines
Salts
Non-Narcotic Analgesics
Ligands
Derivatives
Decomposition
Sodium Bicarbonate
Photooxidation
mu Opioid Receptor
Alkylation
Bromides
Nitrogen
Infrared radiation
Oxidation
Acids
potassium hydroxide

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Chemistry(all)
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Drug Discovery
  • Pharmaceutical Science
  • Pharmacology

Cite this

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title = "Synthesis of a secondary N-desmethyl and a tertiary N-cyclopropylmethyl bridged hexahydroaporphine as precursors to bicyclic opioid ligands",
abstract = "In an attempt to generate a bicyclic 5,8-ethano derivative of N-methylmorphinan, an isomeric bicyclic hexahydroaporphine 2 was synthesized. The phenolic analogue of 2 has demonstrated affinity for mu opioid receptors in vitro and, along with 2, provided weak, primarily nonopioid analgesic action when injected intracerebroventricularly in mice. It was of interest to assess the potential opioid antagonist action of bicyclic hexahydroaporphine analogues containing cyclopropylmethyl and allyl nitrogen substituents. As the first steps in the generation of these potential opioid antagonists, the secondary bicyclic hexahydroaporphine 3 and its N-cyclopropylmethyl congener 4 were synthesized. N-Demethylation of 2 was initially attempted via the von Braun reaction, but acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of the crude N-cyano intermediate resulted in product decomposition. A successful approach to 3 involved the hydrolysis of the N-formyl precursor 1 in ethanolic potassium hydroxide. Direct alkylation of the secondary amine 3 utilizing cyclopropylmethyl bromide and sodium bicarbonate successfully generated the alkylated derivative 4. Both products were purified in hydrochloride salt form and characterized by standard analytical and spectroscopic methods. The free base form of 3 was highly sensitive to photooxidation. Opioids are known to oxidize to 10-keto structures, and secondary amines can oxidize to hydroxylamines. Infrared analysis of the decomposition product indicated the presence of both hydroxy and carbonyl groups which were absent in the spectrum of the salt. Structures of potential oxidation products are proposed.",
author = "Tran, {N. D.} and Brosnahan, {K. M.} and Roche, {Victoria F.}",
year = "1990",
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T1 - Synthesis of a secondary N-desmethyl and a tertiary N-cyclopropylmethyl bridged hexahydroaporphine as precursors to bicyclic opioid ligands

AU - Tran, N. D.

AU - Brosnahan, K. M.

AU - Roche, Victoria F.

PY - 1990

Y1 - 1990

N2 - In an attempt to generate a bicyclic 5,8-ethano derivative of N-methylmorphinan, an isomeric bicyclic hexahydroaporphine 2 was synthesized. The phenolic analogue of 2 has demonstrated affinity for mu opioid receptors in vitro and, along with 2, provided weak, primarily nonopioid analgesic action when injected intracerebroventricularly in mice. It was of interest to assess the potential opioid antagonist action of bicyclic hexahydroaporphine analogues containing cyclopropylmethyl and allyl nitrogen substituents. As the first steps in the generation of these potential opioid antagonists, the secondary bicyclic hexahydroaporphine 3 and its N-cyclopropylmethyl congener 4 were synthesized. N-Demethylation of 2 was initially attempted via the von Braun reaction, but acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of the crude N-cyano intermediate resulted in product decomposition. A successful approach to 3 involved the hydrolysis of the N-formyl precursor 1 in ethanolic potassium hydroxide. Direct alkylation of the secondary amine 3 utilizing cyclopropylmethyl bromide and sodium bicarbonate successfully generated the alkylated derivative 4. Both products were purified in hydrochloride salt form and characterized by standard analytical and spectroscopic methods. The free base form of 3 was highly sensitive to photooxidation. Opioids are known to oxidize to 10-keto structures, and secondary amines can oxidize to hydroxylamines. Infrared analysis of the decomposition product indicated the presence of both hydroxy and carbonyl groups which were absent in the spectrum of the salt. Structures of potential oxidation products are proposed.

AB - In an attempt to generate a bicyclic 5,8-ethano derivative of N-methylmorphinan, an isomeric bicyclic hexahydroaporphine 2 was synthesized. The phenolic analogue of 2 has demonstrated affinity for mu opioid receptors in vitro and, along with 2, provided weak, primarily nonopioid analgesic action when injected intracerebroventricularly in mice. It was of interest to assess the potential opioid antagonist action of bicyclic hexahydroaporphine analogues containing cyclopropylmethyl and allyl nitrogen substituents. As the first steps in the generation of these potential opioid antagonists, the secondary bicyclic hexahydroaporphine 3 and its N-cyclopropylmethyl congener 4 were synthesized. N-Demethylation of 2 was initially attempted via the von Braun reaction, but acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of the crude N-cyano intermediate resulted in product decomposition. A successful approach to 3 involved the hydrolysis of the N-formyl precursor 1 in ethanolic potassium hydroxide. Direct alkylation of the secondary amine 3 utilizing cyclopropylmethyl bromide and sodium bicarbonate successfully generated the alkylated derivative 4. Both products were purified in hydrochloride salt form and characterized by standard analytical and spectroscopic methods. The free base form of 3 was highly sensitive to photooxidation. Opioids are known to oxidize to 10-keto structures, and secondary amines can oxidize to hydroxylamines. Infrared analysis of the decomposition product indicated the presence of both hydroxy and carbonyl groups which were absent in the spectrum of the salt. Structures of potential oxidation products are proposed.

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