Synthesis of Novel Basic Head-to-Side-Chain Cyclic Dynorphin A Analogs: Strategies and Side Reactions

Balvinder S. Vig, Thomas F. Murray, Jane V. Aldrich

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11 Scopus citations


Novel N-terminus-to-side-chain cyclic analogs of the opioid peptide dynorphin (Dyn) A-(1-11)NH2 were prepared that retain the basicity of the N-terminal amine and restrict the backbone conformation around the important Tyr1 residue. Cyclic peptides were synthesized in which the N-terminal amine and the Nε-amine of a Lys at position 3 or 5 were attached to the α-carbon and carbonyl of an acetyl group, respectively. Several synthetic strategies were explored with detailed analysis of the side reactions in order to obtain the desired cyclic peptides. One of the side reactions observed involved premature loss of the N-terminal 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl (Fmoc) group during the neutralization step following deprotection of the Mtt (4-methyltrityl) protecting group from the side chain of Lys. The successful strategy involved the synthesis of the linear peptide up through Gly2 and functionalization through the N ε-amine of Lys. A linear N-terminal alkylated analog was prepared by alkylation of the peptide on the resin with an equimolar amount of bromoacetamide, followed by treatment of the peptide with Fmoc-OSu prior to cleavage from the resin to facilitate separation by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography of unreacted peptide from the desired alkylated product. The novel N-terminal cyclic Dyn A analogs and the linear analog were evaluated for their opioid receptor affinities. These peptides exhibited large losses in affinity for opioid receptors; the low affinity of the linear N-terminal alkylated peptide suggested that the α-acetamide group on the N-terminal amine resulted in unfavorable interactions with opioid receptors.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)620-637
Number of pages18
JournalBiopolymers - Peptide Science Section
Issue number6
StatePublished - 2003
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biophysics
  • Biochemistry
  • Biomaterials
  • Organic Chemistry


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