Targets of immunotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma: An update

Vikrant Rai, Sandeep Mukherjee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Hepatocellular carcinoma, the most common primary liver cancer, in an immunogenic tumor with a poor prognosis because these tumors are diagnosed at late stages. Although, surgical resection, ablation, liver transplant, and locoregional therapies are available for early stages; however, there are yet no effective treatment for advanced and recurrent tumors. Immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy and adoptive cell transfer therapy has gained the popularity with some positive results because these therapies overcome anergy and systemic immune suppression. However, still there is a lack of an effective treatment and thus there is an unmet need of a novel treatment. At present, the focus of the research is on oncolytic viral therapy and combination therapy where therapies including radiotherapy, immune checkpoint therapy, adoptive cell transfer therapy, and vaccines are combined to get an additive or synergistic effect enhancing the immune response of the liver with a cytotoxic effect on tumor cells. This review discusses the recent key development, the basis of drug resistance, immune evasion, immune tolerance, the available therapies based on stage of the tumor, and the ongoing clinical trials on immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy, adoptive cell transfer therapy, oncolytic viral vaccine therapy, and combination therapy

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)140-157
Number of pages18
JournalWorld Journal of Hepatology
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2022
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Hepatology


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