The effects of aldosterone antagonists in patients with resistant hypertension: A meta-analysis of randomized and nonrandomized studies

Khagendra Dahal, Sumit Kunwar, Jharendra Rijal, Fahad Alqatahni, Raju Panta, Noshi Ishak, Roy Patterson Russell

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73 Scopus citations

Abstract

BACKGROUND A few studies have shown aldosterone antagonists (AA) to be effective therapy in patients with resistant hypertension (RH). We performed a meta-analysis of randomized and nonrandomized studies of AA in patients with RH. METHODS We searched PUBMED, EMBASE, and CENTRAL for studies on the use of AA in patients with RH. Meta-analysis was performed using random-effects model. The change in office and ambulatory blood pressures (BP), effects on biochemical profile, change in the number of antihypertensive agents, and adverse events were main outcomes. RESULTS We included 15 studies (3 randomized controlled trials, 1 nonrandomized comparative study, and 11 single-arm studies) with 1,204 total patients in the meta-analysis. In comparative studies, AA reduced systolic BP (SBP) by 24.26mm Hg (95% CI: 8.65-39.87, P = 0.002) and diastolic BP (DBP) by 7.79mm Hg (3.79-11.79, P = 0.0001). Similarly, AA reduced SBP by 22.74mm Hg (18.21-27.27, P < 0.00001) and DBP by 10.49mm Hg (8.85-12.13, P < 0.00001) in single-arm studies. AA resulted in significant change in serum electrolytes in single-arm studies but not in comparative studies. Significantly more adverse events were noted in single-arm studies but not in comparative studies. CONCLUSIONS On the basis of the current meta-analysis, we conclude that AA is safe and effective therapy in patients with RH.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1376-1385
Number of pages10
JournalAmerican Journal of Hypertension
Volume28
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 5 2015
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Internal Medicine

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