The Influence of Squat Kinematics and Cam Morphology on Acetabular Stress

Jennifer Bagwell, Christopher M. Powers

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


Purpose To evaluate the effect of varying degrees of simulated cam morphology on acetabular stress magnitude and location using a finite element model with 1 subject that incorporates population-specific hip/pelvis kinematics during a squat task. Methods A reference model of the hip joint was created from magnetic resonance images obtained from 1 asymptomatic 28-year-old man without femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) morphology or hip dysplasia (alpha angle 41.9°, lateral center edge angle 34.0°, neck-shaft angle 137°, and no visible articular cartilage lesions or bone marrow edema on magnetic resonance). The femoral head/neck geometry was manipulated to mimic different cam morphology severities as reported in a previous study (minimum, moderate, and large). Peak hip and pelvis squat kinematics from healthy individuals (hip flexion 112.6°, abduction 10.5°, internal rotation 14.8°) and persons with FAI (hip flexion 106.3°, abduction 10.5°, internal rotation 8.9°) were applied to the control and cam models. Relative acetabular joint stress values and location of contact were the variables of interest. Results Average von Mises stress values for control, minimum, moderate, and large cam models were 9.64, 9.27, 11.36, and 28.43 MPa, respectively. Contact in the control and minimum cam models occurred within the acetabular cup. In the moderate and large cam models, contact shifted anterosuperiorly within the acetabular cup and to anterosuperior acetabular rim, respectively. Conclusions Despite simulating lower degrees of hip flexion and internal rotation, increased stress and a shift in contact location were observed in the simulated models of FAI. This finding suggests that decreased hip internal rotation in this population during functional tasks may be the result of bony abutment. Clinical Relevance Clinicians should be cautious about prescribing deep squats for persons with cam morphology. Performing squat exercises with neutral or external hip rotation may limit bony abutment at high hip flexion angles.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1797-1803
Number of pages7
JournalArthroscopy - Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 1 2017

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine


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