The role of spatial frequency analysis in correlating atomic force microscopy and optical profilometry with self-etch adhesive enamel bond fatigue durability

Nicholas G. Fischer, Jonathan Dang, Toshiki Takamizawa, Akimasa Tsujimoto, Wayne W. Barkmeier, Andrew Baruth

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The purpose of this study was to: (a) evaluate the role of enamel surface roughness on bond fatigue durability and (b) evaluate statistical differences in roughness values based on measurement technique, including the use of spatial filtering for optical profilometry (OP). OptiBond XTR (Kerr Corp), Prime & Bond elect (DENTSPLY Caulk), Scotchbond Universal (3 M Oral Care), and XTR pre-etched with Ultra-Etch phosphoric acid (35%) (Ultradent) self-etch adhesives were used to treat enamel. A flat ground enamel surface was included as a control. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and OP were used to measure the surface topography of each enamel surface following the application of adhesives. AFM, OP, and filtered OP (FOP) roughness values, where FOP was designed to only include the lateral spatial resolution consistent with AFM roughness values, were collected. Spatial resolution filtering with OriginPro was used to compare line scans from the two imaging techniques and generate the FOP group. These micro- versus nanoscale lateral roughness values were correlated with shear bond and shear fatigue strengths of the adhesives bonded to enamel. Roughness values showed differences based on measurement technique and strong correlations with bond and fatigue strength. The filtered OP group demonstrated the importance of careful usage and reporting of atomic force microscopy and OP metrics in adhesive dentistry. Best practices for surface roughness analysis were also discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalMicroscopy Research and Technique
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2019


All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Anatomy
  • Histology
  • Instrumentation
  • Medical Laboratory Technology

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