Purpose: Patients with portal vein thrombosis (PVT) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have limited treatment options because of increased disease burden and diminished hepatic perfusion. Yttrium-90 (90Y) microspheres may be better tolerated than chemoembolization in these patients. The present study reviews the safety and efficacy of 90Y microspheres in HCC with major PVT. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of HCC with main (n = 10) or first-branch (n = 12) PVT treated with 90Y microspheres (N = 22) was conducted. Cancer of the Liver Italian Program (CLIP) scores ranged from 2 to 5, with 18% of patients having a score of 4 or greater. Imaging response at 812 was based on Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors. Overall survival (OS) was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: A total of 32 microsphere treatments (26 glass, six resin) were administered to 22 patients. Common grade 1/2 toxicities included abdominal pain (38%), nausea (28%), and fatigue (22%). Four posttreatment hospitalizations occurred, all less than 48 hours in duration. One death occurred 10 days after therapy. The partial response rate was 8% and progressive disease was seen in 42% of patients. Stable disease was achieved in 50% of treatments. Median OS was 7 months from initial treatment. Patients with Child-Pugh class A disease had a median OS of 7.7 months; those with class B/C disease had an OS of 2.7 months (P = .01). Median OS for patients with CLIP scores of 2/3 was 7 months, versus 1.3 months for those with scores of 4/5 (P = .04). Conclusions: Yttrium-90 microspheres are tolerated in patients with HCC and major PVT. Compared with chemoembolization, rates of severe adverse events appear low. Radiographic response rates are low. The median OS of 7 months is promising and warrants further study versus systemic therapy.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine