Patients with cirrhosis are advised to undergo hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) surveillance every 6 months. Routine surveillance is associated with early tumor detection and improved survival. However, surveillance is underutilized. We aimed to characterize the uptake of HCC surveillance in cirrhotic patients following the implementation of interventional programs. We performed a comprehensive literature search of major databases (from inception to October 2020). Surveillance was defined as having an abdominal sonogram every 6 months. Nine studies were included for meta-analysis which involved 4550 patients. The etiology of liver cirrhosis was largely due to hepatitis C or B (n = 2023), followed by alcohol (n = 857), and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (n = 432). Patients enrolled in surveillance programs were 6 times more likely to undergo abdominal sonography when compared with standard of care (odds ratio = 6.00; 95% confidence interval: 3.35-10.77). On subgroup analysis, clinical reminders were associated with a 4 times higher rate of HCC surveillance compared with standard of care (odds ratio = 3.80; 95% confidence interval: 2.25-6.39). Interventional programs significantly improve the rate of HCC surveillance. This is clinically impactful and should be considered as a means for improving surveillance rates.
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