Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine whether fractal analysis could discriminate the peri-implant trabecular bone between individuals with healthy peri-implant mucosa and peri-implant disease using digital periapical radiographs. Material and Methods: The electronic health records of patients with a dental implant were reviewed to determine their eligibility. One hundred four patients (aged 27–89 years) were included and divided into three groups. Group 1) Individuals with healthy peri-implant mucosa; Group 2) Individuals with peri-implant mucositis; or Group 3) Individuals with peri-implantitis. The following clinical measurements for each dental implant were extracted: probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), and the presence or absence of bleeding on probing (BOP). Digital periapical images of the implant were used to calculate the fractal dimension (FD) for each implant at two regions of interest (ROI). Summary statistics were calculated for mean PD, mean CAL, mean percent BOP, and mean FD by group. Differences among groups were tested using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Spearman nonparametric correlations were tabulated for mean PD, mean CAL, mean percent BOP, and mean FD. Results: The only measure that did not demonstrate significant differences among groups was FD (p =.559) with all other measures demonstrating a significant difference (p <.001). Conclusions: Based on this study, FD of the peri-implant bone calculated from a periapical radiograph does not appear to be a valid method to distinguish between healthy and diseased implants, while clinical measures of PD, CAL, and BOP are useful for the diagnosis of peri-implant health, peri-implant mucositis, and peri-implantitis.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Oral Surgery