Vasoactive intestinal peptide transactivates the androgen receptor through a protein kinase A-dependent extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway in prostate cancer LNCaP cells

Yan Xie, Dennis W. Wolff, Ming Fong Lin, Yaping Tu

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Abstract

Acquisition of androgen independence by prostate cancer is the key problem of prostate cancer progression. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), a neuropeptide, may act as a survival factor for prostate cancer cells under androgen deprivation. However, the molecular mechanisms by which VIP promotes the androgen-independent growth of androgen-sensitive prostate cancer cells have not been addressed. We therefore investigated the biological effect and signal pathway of VIP in LNCaP cells, a prostate cancer cell line that requires androgens for growth. We showed that low nanomolar concentrations of VIP, acting through Gs-protein-coupled VIP receptors, can induce LNCaP cell growth in the absence of androgen. Blockade of androgen-receptor (AR) in these cells by AR antagonist bicalutamide or by anti-AR small interfering RNA, inhibited the proliferative effect of VIP. In addition, VIP stimulated androgen-independent activation of AR with an EC50 of 3.0 ± 0.8 nM. We then investigated VIP-stimulated signaling events that may interact with the AR pathway in prostate cancer cells. VIP regulation of AR activation, mediated by VIP receptors, was protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) activation contributes to VIP-mediated AR activation. Furthermore, PKA-dependent Rap1 activation is required for both ERK1/2 activation and androgen-independent AR activation in LNCaP cells upon VIP stimulation. Finally, we showed that VIP-induced AR activation was also present in prostate cancer CWR22Rv1 and PC3 cells transfected with the wild-type AR. Altogether, we demonstrate that VIP acting through its Gs-protein-coupled receptors can cause androgen-independent transactivation of AR through a PKA/Rap1/ERK1/2 pathway, thus promoting androgen-independent proliferation of androgen-sensitive prostate cancer cells.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)73-85
Number of pages13
JournalMolecular Pharmacology
Volume72
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 2007

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Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide
Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases
Androgen Receptors
Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases
Androgens
Prostatic Neoplasms
Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3
Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1
Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide Receptors
Growth
Androgen Receptor Antagonists
Neuropeptides
Small Interfering RNA
Transcriptional Activation
Signal Transduction
Proteins

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pharmacology

Cite this

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title = "Vasoactive intestinal peptide transactivates the androgen receptor through a protein kinase A-dependent extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway in prostate cancer LNCaP cells",
abstract = "Acquisition of androgen independence by prostate cancer is the key problem of prostate cancer progression. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), a neuropeptide, may act as a survival factor for prostate cancer cells under androgen deprivation. However, the molecular mechanisms by which VIP promotes the androgen-independent growth of androgen-sensitive prostate cancer cells have not been addressed. We therefore investigated the biological effect and signal pathway of VIP in LNCaP cells, a prostate cancer cell line that requires androgens for growth. We showed that low nanomolar concentrations of VIP, acting through Gs-protein-coupled VIP receptors, can induce LNCaP cell growth in the absence of androgen. Blockade of androgen-receptor (AR) in these cells by AR antagonist bicalutamide or by anti-AR small interfering RNA, inhibited the proliferative effect of VIP. In addition, VIP stimulated androgen-independent activation of AR with an EC50 of 3.0 ± 0.8 nM. We then investigated VIP-stimulated signaling events that may interact with the AR pathway in prostate cancer cells. VIP regulation of AR activation, mediated by VIP receptors, was protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) activation contributes to VIP-mediated AR activation. Furthermore, PKA-dependent Rap1 activation is required for both ERK1/2 activation and androgen-independent AR activation in LNCaP cells upon VIP stimulation. Finally, we showed that VIP-induced AR activation was also present in prostate cancer CWR22Rv1 and PC3 cells transfected with the wild-type AR. Altogether, we demonstrate that VIP acting through its Gs-protein-coupled receptors can cause androgen-independent transactivation of AR through a PKA/Rap1/ERK1/2 pathway, thus promoting androgen-independent proliferation of androgen-sensitive prostate cancer cells.",
author = "Yan Xie and Wolff, {Dennis W.} and Lin, {Ming Fong} and Yaping Tu",
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T1 - Vasoactive intestinal peptide transactivates the androgen receptor through a protein kinase A-dependent extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway in prostate cancer LNCaP cells

AU - Xie, Yan

AU - Wolff, Dennis W.

AU - Lin, Ming Fong

AU - Tu, Yaping

PY - 2007/7

Y1 - 2007/7

N2 - Acquisition of androgen independence by prostate cancer is the key problem of prostate cancer progression. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), a neuropeptide, may act as a survival factor for prostate cancer cells under androgen deprivation. However, the molecular mechanisms by which VIP promotes the androgen-independent growth of androgen-sensitive prostate cancer cells have not been addressed. We therefore investigated the biological effect and signal pathway of VIP in LNCaP cells, a prostate cancer cell line that requires androgens for growth. We showed that low nanomolar concentrations of VIP, acting through Gs-protein-coupled VIP receptors, can induce LNCaP cell growth in the absence of androgen. Blockade of androgen-receptor (AR) in these cells by AR antagonist bicalutamide or by anti-AR small interfering RNA, inhibited the proliferative effect of VIP. In addition, VIP stimulated androgen-independent activation of AR with an EC50 of 3.0 ± 0.8 nM. We then investigated VIP-stimulated signaling events that may interact with the AR pathway in prostate cancer cells. VIP regulation of AR activation, mediated by VIP receptors, was protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) activation contributes to VIP-mediated AR activation. Furthermore, PKA-dependent Rap1 activation is required for both ERK1/2 activation and androgen-independent AR activation in LNCaP cells upon VIP stimulation. Finally, we showed that VIP-induced AR activation was also present in prostate cancer CWR22Rv1 and PC3 cells transfected with the wild-type AR. Altogether, we demonstrate that VIP acting through its Gs-protein-coupled receptors can cause androgen-independent transactivation of AR through a PKA/Rap1/ERK1/2 pathway, thus promoting androgen-independent proliferation of androgen-sensitive prostate cancer cells.

AB - Acquisition of androgen independence by prostate cancer is the key problem of prostate cancer progression. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), a neuropeptide, may act as a survival factor for prostate cancer cells under androgen deprivation. However, the molecular mechanisms by which VIP promotes the androgen-independent growth of androgen-sensitive prostate cancer cells have not been addressed. We therefore investigated the biological effect and signal pathway of VIP in LNCaP cells, a prostate cancer cell line that requires androgens for growth. We showed that low nanomolar concentrations of VIP, acting through Gs-protein-coupled VIP receptors, can induce LNCaP cell growth in the absence of androgen. Blockade of androgen-receptor (AR) in these cells by AR antagonist bicalutamide or by anti-AR small interfering RNA, inhibited the proliferative effect of VIP. In addition, VIP stimulated androgen-independent activation of AR with an EC50 of 3.0 ± 0.8 nM. We then investigated VIP-stimulated signaling events that may interact with the AR pathway in prostate cancer cells. VIP regulation of AR activation, mediated by VIP receptors, was protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) activation contributes to VIP-mediated AR activation. Furthermore, PKA-dependent Rap1 activation is required for both ERK1/2 activation and androgen-independent AR activation in LNCaP cells upon VIP stimulation. Finally, we showed that VIP-induced AR activation was also present in prostate cancer CWR22Rv1 and PC3 cells transfected with the wild-type AR. Altogether, we demonstrate that VIP acting through its Gs-protein-coupled receptors can cause androgen-independent transactivation of AR through a PKA/Rap1/ERK1/2 pathway, thus promoting androgen-independent proliferation of androgen-sensitive prostate cancer cells.

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