Vitamin D and calcium supplementation reduces cancer risk

Results of a randomized trial

Joan M. Lappe, Dianne Travers-Gustafson, K. Michael Davies, Robert R. Recker, Robert P. Heaney

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1016 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Numerous observational studies have found supplemental calcium and vitamin D to be associated with reduced risk of common cancers. However, interventional studies to test this effect are lacking. Objective: The purpose of this analysis was to determine the efficacy of calcium alone and calcium plus vitamin D in reducing incident cancer risk of all types. Design: This was a 4-y, population-based, double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial. The primary outcome was fracture incidence, and the principal secondary outcome was cancer incidence. The subjects were 1179 community-dwelling women randomly selected from the population of healthy postmenopausal women aged >55 y in a 9-county rural area of Nebraska centered at latitude 41.4° N. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive 1400-1500 mg supplemental calcium/d alone (Ca-only), supplemental calcium plus 1100 IU vitamin D3/d (Ca + D), or placebo. Results: When analyzed by intention to treat, cancer incidence was lower in the Ca + D women than in the placebo control subjects (P <0.03). With the use of logistic regression, the unadjusted relative risks (RR) of incident cancer in the Ca + D and Ca-only groups were 0.402 (P = 0.01) and 0.532 (P = 0.06), respectively. When analysis was confined to cancers diagnosed after the first 12 mo, RR for the Ca + D group fell to 0.232 (CI: 0.09, 0.60; P <0.005) but did not change significantly for the Ca-only group. In multiple logistic regression models, both treatment and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations were significant, independent predictors of cancer risk. Conclusions: Improving calcium and vitamin D nutritional status substantially reduces all-cancer risk in postmenopausal women. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00352170.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1586-1591
Number of pages6
JournalAmerican Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Volume85
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 1 2007

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vitamin D
Vitamin D
Calcium
calcium
neoplasms
Neoplasms
placebos
Logistic Models
Placebos
relative risk
incidence
Incidence
Independent Living
cholecalciferol
Cholecalciferol
observational studies
Nutritional Status
rural areas
Population
Observational Studies

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Food Science

Cite this

Vitamin D and calcium supplementation reduces cancer risk : Results of a randomized trial. / Lappe, Joan M.; Travers-Gustafson, Dianne; Davies, K. Michael; Recker, Robert R.; Heaney, Robert P.

In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 85, No. 6, 01.06.2007, p. 1586-1591.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Lappe, Joan M. ; Travers-Gustafson, Dianne ; Davies, K. Michael ; Recker, Robert R. ; Heaney, Robert P. / Vitamin D and calcium supplementation reduces cancer risk : Results of a randomized trial. In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2007 ; Vol. 85, No. 6. pp. 1586-1591.
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