Vitamin D and macrophage polarization in epicardial adipose tissue of atherosclerotic swine

Palanikumar Gunasekar, Vicki J. Swier, Jonathan P. Fleegel, Chandra S. Boosani, Mohamed M. Radwan, Devendra K. Agrawal

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22 Scopus citations


Vitamin D functions as a potent immunomodulator by interacting with many immune cells however, its role in regulating inflammation in the epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is unclear. In the EAT of atherosclerotic microswine that were fed with deficient, sufficient or supplemented levels of Vitamin D, we evaluated the phenotype of the macrophages. Vitamin D treatment was continued for 12 months and serum 25(OH)D levels were measured regularly. Infiltration of M1/M2 macrophage was investigated by immunostaining for CCR7 and CD206, respectively in conjunction with a pan macrophage marker CD14. Significant difference in the number of CCR7+ cells was observed in the EAT from Vitamin D-deficient swine compared to Vitamin D-sufficient or-supplemented swine. Expression of CD206 correlated with high levels of serum 25(OH)D indicating a significant increase in M2 macrophages in the EAT of Vitamin D-supplemented compared to-deficient swine. These findings suggest that Vitamin D-deficiency exacerbates inflammation by increasing pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages, while Vitamin D-supplementation attenuates the inflammatory cytokines and promotes M2 macrophages in EAT. This study demonstrates the significance of Vitamin D mediated inhibition of macrophage mediated inflammation in the EAT during coronary intervention in addition to its immunomodulatory role. However, additional studies are required to identify the cellular mechanisms that transduce signals between macrophages and smooth muscle cells during restenosis in the presence and absence of Vitamin D.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere0199411
JournalPLoS One
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 1 2018

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)


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