Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphism affects bone mineral density: An analysis by fuzzy mathematics

Guodong Gong, Shih Chuan Cheng, John N. Mordeson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


To find defects in genes that cause diseases, geneticists test whether a change or variation in a gene is associated with a disease or an increased susceptibility. Morrison first reported in 1994 that a slight variation in the vitamin D receptor gene (VDRGP) is associated with a significant change in our bone mineral density (BMD). By January of 1997, seventy-five independent investigations had been published, and no consensus had been reached as to whether BMD is really associated with VDRGP. We analyzed all the 75 publications using a fuzzy mathematics approach to address this issue. We use two methods, one based on preference relations, and the other based on p-values. Fifty-five studies on spinal BMD and 73 on hip BMD were analyzed. Results from method I found that VDRGP affects spinal BMD strongly among pre-menopausal populations, and moderately among post-menopausal populations, and populations with pre-and post-menopausal women combined No relations were found in populations with males and females combined. VDRGP was associated with hip BMD among pre-menopausal, but not any other, populations. Using method II we found that VDRGP was associated with spinal BMD only in pre-menopausal women, and VDRGP was somewhat associated with hip BMD in all four types of populations. Conclusion: BMD is associated with VDRGP in certain populations, but not in others. Heterogeneity of populations studied seems to be responsible for the discrepancies among studies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)113-129
Number of pages17
JournalInformation sciences
Issue number1-2
StatePublished - Jan 1999

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Software
  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Theoretical Computer Science
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Information Systems and Management
  • Artificial Intelligence


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